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    An historical investigation into healing trajectories of selected megachurches in the South African religiosity space, 2010-2018
    (University of Zululand, 2022) Mabuza, Lethabo Stanley
    Contemporary South Africa is currently caught up in cross-road of incredulity of peculiar spiritual activities within religiosity space. The emergence of newly established churches, prophets and pastors in South Africa seems to be contributing factors on some questionable healing practices. In relation to some miracle practices, miracle healing today plays an important role in shaping the church existence in South African space. In some circumstances there were incidents couples with trending strange practices that form part of miracles which were taking place such as congregants made to eat grass, drink petrol, eat rats, snakes, spray doom and some cases putting ministers‟ shoe on women‟s private places and also standing on devotees‟ bodies. It is in view of the above incidents that this study focused on investigation into healing trajectories of selected megachurches in South African religiosity space from 2010-2018. In this regard, South African government has a huge role to play in order to enforce ethical principles onto some churches and religious groups. In this study the researcher employed a qualitative method approach. The aim of the study was to investigate into the healing trajectories of some selected megachurches in South African religiosity space. The design for the study was interpretative phenomenal hence included ethnographic, exploratory and contextual approaches. Non-probability and purposeful sampling procedures were employed in this study in which Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis strategy was also employed to analyse the data for the research. The researcher considered interpretative phenomenal approach to analyse the data in order to determine healing trajectories within megachurches in the South African religiosity space. The findings of the study were that: most of the megachurches perform miracles healing that are fake and unfounded, however, some participants indicated that they got spiritual, economic and social assistant from other megachurches that perform both healing and miracles. Criticism surfaced from the narrative of sick people who went and attended healing services to some megachurches with great hopes to be healed and such healing miracles did not happen. The study also found that social and economic aspects are the major contributing factors that propel people to flock to some megachurches both miracles and problem solving. The findings further revealed that in some megachurches faith and biomedicine are discouraged to be utilised by members, thus, pastors and prophets who discourage their members from considering biomedical treatments are found to be genocide. The findings also revealed that sexual abuse in some megachurches is a serious problem that constitutes unethical conduct by some prophets and pastors. It also surfaced from the findings that some church leaders visit Western African states for the purpose to acquire powers for healing from the African Traditional Healers. Findings also indicated that there are no distinctions between “major” and “white collar” prophets. Their (prophets) actions are similar. Both classes of prophets are after money and they both display criminal acts to their members. A numbers of sexual abuse on female followers and congregants were reported as others are still under SAPS investigations. The findings further suggests that regulation of churches and religious practices might attempt to solve the crisis of abusive pastors and prophets in some selected churches, this might be an opportunity where new and challenging religious problems would be curbed.
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    The international relations policies of South Africa, 1990-2008
    (University of Zululand, 2019) Maphumulo, Simangele Monica
    This study aimed at examining the issue of participatory, or “democratic,” international relations’ policy making through the lens of International Relations Policy Analysis (IFPA), a theoretical approach that helped provide the definitional framework for the study. Various regime types and leadership characterised and shaped South Africa’s international relations policies during the epoch in question. This necessitated a theoretical and empirical exposition of the various thrusts and narratives of South African government’s international relations policies during crucial epochs in the country’s history. The 1948-1989 era saw the rule of National Party until the unbanning of the ANC. This was characterized by South Africa’s efforts to counter its growing international isolation and find friends wherever they could be solicited. Key problematizing issues included withdrawal from the Commonwealth; growing international isolation; strained ties with the United Nations; growing estrangement from the United States and traditional allies in Europe; growing ties with other global pariahs; clandestine propaganda and sanctions-busting efforts; and Pretoria’s efforts to build ties with African states. The period 1994-1999 witnessed the culmination of South African re-engagement efforts and saw the country, still basking in the afterglow of its successful transition under the rule of the African National Congress, play an active and outsized role in the international arena. However, South African international relations’ policy during this period also was marked by significant difficulties in balancing its idealist aims with more “realist” considerations. No longer was a global pariah, South Africa was ultimately compelled to make difficult geopolitical choices. The epoch 1999-2008 endorsed efforts to bring peace, democracy, and prosperity to the rest of Africa while positioning Pretoria as an influential actor both globally and on the continent. South Africa’s growing prioritization of the developing world; its global diplomatic expansion; Pretoria’s efforts to “punch above its weight” in the international arena, on such issues as reform of global governance structures; and its shift from a human rights focus in the early period to more “pragmatic” policies. What served as justification for this study is that these developments advocated the need to “democratize” international relations’ policy making, making it more participatory and open to inputs from broader society as well as ensuring legislative oversight to prevent the executive from policy unilateralism. This was best be demonstrated by delving into varying Presidencies on International Relations’ Policy Making and Ruling Regimes in perspective; international Relations’ Policy in the Period of Transition; as well as international Relations in the pragmatic era, disaggregating a plethora of protagonists involved in the process—both from the influencing and decision-making sides of the coin— analyzed their individual roles in the process of international relations’ policy democratization until 2008.
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    The birth and evolution of the Military in Independent Swaziland 1973-2013
    (University of Zululand, 2019) Sihlongonyane, Precious
    Swaziland is one of the few African countries that has experienced neither a military coup nor a civil war, and has remained peaceful since independence in 1968 from the British. What transpired in Swaziland after independence was not uncommon in post-colonial Africa as evidence suggests that independent African states were motivated by numerous dynamics to build standing armies as security institutions. The intention of the study is to analyse the dynamics that led to the establishment and development of the Swazi army, and how this army has developed overtime and what interests it has served. The study intends to explore both the internal and regional circumstances that played an important role in the formation of the army in the country. The study also analyses the trajectory of the development of the Swazi army over the years with particular reference to its relations with general society.
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    The political economy of Swaziland's quest to incorporate Ingwavuma and parts of Mpumalanga(South Africa)
    (UNIVERSITY OF ZULULAND, 2019) Gama, Stanley.M
    This study analyses the political economy of Swaziland’s quest to incorporate Ngwavuma and parts of Mpumalanga. The primary research question is: What drives Swaziland to pursue the issue of the land that was taken from her during the colonial era despite the declaration by the Organization of African Unity that all colonial boundaries should not be tampered with in adjusting the present borders. The study uses the Swaziland – South Africa border issue, to investigate the dynamics behind Swaziland’s quest to incorporate Ingwavuma and some parts of Mpumalanga. The findings of the study are not unique to Swaziland and South Africa but are relevant to Africa as a whole. Firstly, the study employed a political economy approach or theoretical framework which combines both the political and economic aspects and gives a better understanding of the factors involved in the whole set of border adjustments between South Africa and Swaziland. Is the theory of the interplay between politics and economics in driving historical events and processes over time. The political economy makes intensive and extensive use of class analysis in making sense of the community and history but does so in the context of the environmental, cultural, political, and other economic processes. Secondly, this research study used a qualitative research approach because of its ability to provide more detailed information on a subject. The study also relied on fieldwork in the particular borderland societies astride the South African – Swaziland boundary. It was further informed by archival research. Secondary data was collected from the existing literature on African boundaries themes. The study highlighted the political and economic gains that Swaziland would have if Ingwavuma and parts of Mpumalanga were to be incorporated. The economic benefits would be massive as there are natural resources in those areas. The political impact of the country would also be transformed into a very influential status in the region
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    Labour Unions, Political and the Development of the Swazi Labour Movement 1939-2014.
    (Univeristy of Zululand, 2019) Hlandze, Sifiso Sipho
    The study sets out to examine the development of Swazi labour movement from 1939 to 2014. Through a combination of desktop and qualitative research the study traces the trajectory of the Swazi labour movement from the colonial to the post-colonial period. The Swazi labour movement developed and evolved as a consequence of a number of socio-economic, political and legal factors. The capital penetration that occurred in Swaziland during and after World War II led to the conflict between labour and capital. The expansion of the Swazi economy, particularly the expansion of the workforce due to the growth in investment and production, the political developments of decolonisation struggles, the emergence of Pan-Africanism and the emergence of an authoritarian non-party Tinkhundla state led to the development of the Swazi labour movement in Swaziland. Whereas different scholars have analysed labour relations in Swaziland no study has been conducted to trace the development of the labour movement in the country. This study interrogates this neglected subject by focusing on the views and experiences of the workers to demonstrate that the Swazi labour movement in spite of the challenges it faced from employers and the state, championed the workers’ demands and rights. It reveals social agency, showing that the Swazi labour movement was not passive victims of employers and the state but struck back to express its demands. Against the background of state repression, the study interrogates human agency to show that the Swazi labour movement continued to fight for improved conditions. The study shows that the labour movement played a critical role in the pro- democracy struggles in post-colonial Swaziland. However, in spite of the prominent role played by the labour movement in the struggle for democracy in Swaziland, the study shows the dynamics of labour by discussing the diverse views of the workers on the pro-democracy agenda which proves that Swazi labour was not monolithic. The study concludes by arguing that the Swazi labour movement has provided a constant source of discomfort for the non-party state as it represents an independent power base and holds an unrivalled capacity for political mobilisation in Swazi civil society. Key words: labour movement, pro-democracy, state repression, Tinkhundla, post-colonial, trade unionism.
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