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- ItemN,N'-diisopropylthiourea and N,N'-dicyclohexylthiourea zinc(II) complexes as precursors for the synthesis of ZnS nanoparticles(Academy of Science of South Africa, 2009) Moloto, N.; Revaprasadu, N.; Moloto, M.J.; O'Brien, P.The single X-ray crystal structures of zinc (II) complexes of N,N'-diisopropylthiourea and N,N'-dicyclohexylthiourea were determined. These complexes, similar to other alkylthioureas, were found to be effective as precursors for the preparation of hexadecylamine-capped ZnS nanoparticles. The complexes are air-stable, easy to prepare and inexpensive. They pyrolyse cleanly to give high-quality ZnS nanoparticles, which show quantum confinement effects in their absorption spectra and close to band-edge emission. Their broad diffraction patterns are typical of nanosized particles while their transmission electron microscopy images showed agglomerates of needle-like platelet nanoparticles.
- ItemConceptualising knowledge management in the context of library and information science using the core/periphery model(African Online Scientific Information Systems (AOSIS), 2009) Onyancha, O.B.; Ocholla, D.N.This study took cognisance of the fact that the term 'knowledge management' lacks a universally accepted definition, and consequently sought to describe the term using the most common co-occurring terms in knowledge management (KM) literature as indexed in the Library, Information Science and Technology Abstracts (LISTA) database. Using a variety of approaches and analytic techniques (e.g. core/periphery analysis and co-occurrence of words as subject terms), data were analysed using the core/periphery model and social networks through UCINET for Windows, TI, textSTAT and Bibexcel computer-aided software. The study identified the following as the compound terms with which KM co-occurs most frequently: information resources management, information science, information technology, information services, information retrieval, library science, management information systems and libraries. The core single subject terms with which KM can be defined include resources, technology, libraries, systems, services, retrieval, storage, data and computers. The article concludes by offering the library and information science (LIS) professionals' general perception of KM based on their use of terms, through which KM can be defined within the context of LIS.
- ItemDrawings as a method of evaluation and communication with bereaved children(University of Zululand, 2009-01) Makunga, Nomahlubi V.There is much concern over childhood grief when death strikes in the child’s immediate environment. If the experience of bereavement can be reliably measured in children, insight into their painful experiences will be gained and appropriate treatment strategies will be established. This study aimed to explore whether projective drawings could provide a reliable method of exploring the world of a black bereaved child. The Human Figure Drawing (HFD), Self Portrait, Kinetic Family drawing (KFD) and Own Choice/ spontaneous Drawing techniques were administered with a group of 20 bereaved children and a control group of 20 non bereaved children. In general, more emotional indicators were identified on HFDs and Self Portraits of the Bereaved Group. Results showed statistically significant differences between the two groups on four indicators in HFDs (big figure; teeth; monster/grotesque; hands cut off) and on two indicators in Self Portrait (slanting figure and hands cut off) KFDs and Own Choice Drawings could not statistically differentiate the two groups but were found to be of assistance in gaining insight into the family dynamics and for improving grief work respectively, in the bereaved group. Composite analysis of the four projective drawings provided more insight into the world of the bereaved child
- ItemThe nexus between sustainable livelihoods and ecological management of the World Heritage Sites : lessons from iSimangaliso World Heritage Park, South Africa(University of Zululand, 2009-01) Nzama, T.A.This paper explores the suitability of the ecological management approach to the management of the world heritage sites with an aim of linking sustainable livelihoods of local people and the protection of the resource. There are eight World Heritage Sites in South Africa; two of these, UKhahlamba Drakensberg and iSimangaliso Wetland Park are located in KwaZulu-Natal. The communities that live within and around these World Heritage Sites depend on the sites for their livelihoods through various tourism related activities. There is therefore a need for an approach that integrates biodiversity conservation with local and regional development which ensures sustainable livelihoods for local communities that depend on the resource for their survival. The objectives of the study were four-fold: (a) To explore the possibility of introducing and implementing ecological management at the world heritage sites, (b) To establish the local communities’ understanding of the impacts of human-use on ecosystems and biological resources, (c) To assess the extent to which local communities are involved in biodiversity conservation programmes and (d) To find out if the programmes currently in place are directed at integrating social, economic and environmental issues of the study area. The findings of this study indicate that people living inside and on the buffer of iSimangaliso Wetland Park are aware of the activities that may lead to the degradation of the ecosystems. They are also willing to learn more about the ways in which the resource can be optimally used for their economic survival but at the same time protected from overuse. The findings of the study further indicate that with the common understanding between the site authorities and local communities it is possible that ecological management can be introduced and implemented within the World Heritage Sites
- ItemOpen access : challenges and barriers to African scholars(University of Zululand, 2009-01) Britz, JohannesThe price of journals (referring here to e-journals as well as hard copies) has risen dramatically over the past three decades, to the point that they can hardly be afforded by academic libraries in rich countries such as the USA. This evidently has even worse implications for academic libraries in Africa, and most of Africa's scholarly community therefore remains marginalized in terms of access to the global body of knowledge. The introduction of the Internet, accompanied by the ability to digitize and manipulate information, has not only changed the knowledge and information landscape permanently, but also changed the publishing industry. It has, for the first time, become possible to reproduce and distribute information products and services at nearly zero marginal cost (Anderson, 2006). The only requirement is access to a computer, the Internet and relevant websites. This new model has led to the global Open Access (OA) movement, whose main aim is to distribute scholarly journals free of charge to its end users. For the first time, there is therefore a real opportunity for African scholars to gain, free of charge (or at least at a very affordable cost), access to digital scholarly journals and the scholarly works of others. The OA movement has, however, not led to the free flow of information on the African continent. While expectations have been raised, there are still many stumbling blocks prohibiting African scholars from fully participating in and benefiting from the OA movement. This paper will highlight some of these stumbling blocks, discussed within the moral framework of the right of access to information. The paper is structured in the following manner : First, the notion of OA will be discussed. Following this, I will elaborate on the right of access to information, thereby establishing the moral framework. The third and final part will address some of the challenges and obstacles facing African scholars regarding access to scholarly work via OA.
- ItemThe vexed "colour problem" : Doris Lessing and the "African Renaissance"(University of Zululand, 2009-01) Louw, PatriciaThe question of an African Renaissance is drawing increasing debate among African scholars as they aspire for African unity and the revitalization of African cultures. This involves looking back to Africa’s past and evaluating traditions and customs in order to learn how to shape the future. In this paper it is argued that Doris Lessing, in her African Stories, anticipated post-liberation issues such as the protection of Indigenous Knowledge Systems which have become the cornerstone concepts of the African Renaissance today. She exposes the threat posed by colonial society to African traditions and thereby subverts colonial discourse.
- ItemChallenges of doing research in sub-Saharan African universities scholarship opportunities(University of Zululand, 2009-01) Mutula, StephenUniversities the world over are responsible for research, knowledge generation, scholarship and innovation. They also serve as conduits for the transfer, adaptation, and dissemination of knowledge generated across the world. Universities are expected to guarantee the most efficient utilisation of research results and their possible application to economic life. Globally, universities are facing renewed external and internal pressure as the push for them to meet the changing needs of society intensifies as a result of trends in the transition towards a knowledge-based economy; massification of higher education; and the integration and assimilation of Information Technology (IT) into the academic environment. Moreover, the emergence and use of IT in higher education has led to an increasingly virtual education system, with implications for the dynamics and conduct of university research. Universities no longer remain sole citadels of research activities, as private or government research institutes are increasingly involved in knowledge creation and dissemination. The internationalisation of higher education, coupled with growing student mobility and increased competition for funding, has recently occasioned efforts to rank universities in terms of their academic quality and productivity at national, regional and global levels. Despite the increased demands on universities, they remain constrained by declining state funding, increasing enrolments, limited physical facilities, etc. New technologies now offer lifelines for African universities to re-engineer and reposition themselves in order to meet these ever increasing societal demands effectively. This paper discusses the challenges of doing research in African universities, and assesses the opportunities digital scholarship can engender for these universities. The focus of the paper is on universities in sub-Saharan Africa, excluding North Africa and to some extent, South Africa. North African higher education is largely influenced by practices in Europe and the Middle East. South Africa has had a separate and distinct political history and governance that differs from other African countries. The country also has a fairly well developed technological and industrial economy, which is quite ahead of other African countries. Their system of higher education is older (most universities were established during the pre-World War II phase, while in most sub-Saharan countries, universities were established post-independence, beginning in the late 1950s) and their universities are well endowed with good libraries, well equipped laboratories, long traditions of scholarship based on European models, and a well established ICT infrastructure that is accessible to both faculties and students.
- ItemLanguage and the current challenges in the South African school system(University of Zululand, 2009-01) Mncwango, E.MThe paper discusses the current challenges facing the school system in South Africa with regard to language, and the role schools can play to achieve the government’s objective of multilingualism. Schools are viewed as the most fertile ground for the promotion of multilingualism, as they are attended by learners from different linguistic and cultural backgrounds. What obtains in many schools, especially former Model C schools, is that most of them have not included indigenous African languages in their school curricula. The few that have, offer them at second or third language level – just ‘isiZulu for communication’, etc. In this way, only the language for communication purposes is taught, which does not mean full literacy in the language, or cultural integration. The argument is that with a willing heart on the part of the School Governing Body (SGB), as well as the School Management Team (SMT), language could be used as a tool to integrate learners. This, it is argued, does not obtain in the majority of urban schools. The paper is part of a study which was conducted in 2007. It is, therefore, underpinned by empirical evidence which was solicited from urban (English and Afrikaans medium), and rural (English and isiZulu medium) schools.
- ItemBarriers that impede the effectiveness of precautionary measures of combating the spread of HIV and AIDS : the case of the University of Zululand and Mangosuthu University of Technology(University of Zululand, 2009-01) Mbatha, BlessingThis article explores and identifies the barriers that impede the effectiveness of precautionary measures of fighting the spread of HIV and AIDS in tertiary institutions in KwaZulu Natal, namely, University of Zululand and Mangosuthu University of Technology. This article is informed by the Satisfaction Theory which emphasises the importance of product or service marketing as it determines whether a customer will continue using a product or service or not. The theory indicates that if a customer is satisfied with the service offered by an organisation or a company, then the client may continue using the company’s product or service. However, if a client is dissatisfied with the service offered, he or she may decide to discontinue using the particular product or service. The research problem of this study is articulated through the following research questions: why is the pregnancy rate high in tertiary institutions, whereas condoms are freely available? Why is the spread of HIV escalating in tertiary institutions, whereas information on HIV and AIDS is available? And why are precautionary measures to scale down HIV and AIDS less effective? The study targeted only students in two purposively selected tertiary institutions. The quantitative method and stratified random sampling was used. Data was analysed using Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS) and Microsoft excel. The study established that there are many barriers that impede the effectiveness of precautionary measures of fighting the spread of HIV and AIDS in these tertiary institutions. The study further established that precautionary measures of fighting the spread of HIV and AIDS such as condoms are freely available in these tertiary institutions. However, they are not easily accessible as they are only distributed at the clinics. This article recommends that condoms be distributed all over campus, more especially in students’ residences because that is where students spend most of their time. In addition, the clinics are not always opened as compared to students’ residences.
- ItemSome of the problems in first year students' academic writing in some SADC Universities(University of Zululand, 2009-01) Mpepo, M.V.There are many problems that confront English as a Second Language (ESL) learners in academic writing in some Southern African Development Community (SADC) universities. Some observers and commentators have noted that most graduates from Historically Black Universities (HBUs) exhibit poor performance in English when compared to neighbouring countries like Lesotho and Swaziland. One of these problems is the low proficiency which manifests itself in numerous syntactic errors and inappropriate lexical selection in their use of the target language. The forms or varieties are simply mistakes or errors which can be eradicated by teaching. The learners need to learn and understand the structure and nature of the English language. The deviations and innovations arise owing to a number of processes which are sketched out in the paper. This article also argues that the problem stems from the fact that the burden has been placed on departments of English which seem not to want to abandon the literary tradition. It presents some of the problems that African learners of English in HBUs seem to exhibit in academic writing when they enter university education. It discusses what is done and what needs to be done for first-year students when they enter university in HBUs. In HBUs English language programmes are not mandatory or do not exist, as is the case with most SADC universities and some Historically White Universities (HWUs). The conclusion suggests that it becomes necessary to mount similar English language programmes at first year level in institutions which do not have these programmes. It is hoped that this would improve learners’ language proficiency and hopefully competence as well as the way students acquire their education.
- ItemEvaluation of the effectiveness of the 360-credit National Professional Diploma in Education (NPDE) programme(Education Association of South Africa (EASA), 2010) Ngidi, David; Sibaya, Patrick; Sibaya, Duduzile; Khuzwayo, Herbert; Maphalala, Mncedisi; Ngwenya, NkosinathiWe investigated the effectiveness of the 360-credit National Professional Diploma (NPDE) as a programme that is aimed at the upgrading of currently serving unqualified and under-qualified educators, with a view to improving the quality of teaching and learning in schools and Further Education and Training colleges. To this end, the National Professional Diploma in Education Effectiveness Scale (NPDEES) and Classroom Observation and Assessment Form (COAF) were used. The findings indicated that educators differed in the extent to which they regarded the 360-credit NPDE programme as effective. The findings also indicated that component 3 (competences relating to teaching and learning processes), component 1 (competences relating to fundamental learning) and component 4 (competences relating to the profession, the school and the community) were the best predictors of the effectiveness of the 360-credit NPDE programme. It was found that educators differed in the extent to which they performed during the classroom-based evaluation. Suggestions are made for measures to improve educators' performance in the classroom.
- ItemThe research trends of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences Research at the University of Zululand(University of Zululand, 2010) Ocholla, Dennis; Mostert, JannekeThe Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences departments play a fundamental role in university education and in promoting the vision and mission of the University of Zululand. This paper explores definitions of Humanities and the Social Sciences, and the terms ‘research’ and ‘research output’, and examines the status and challenges of research management at the University of Zululand to evaluate research in the cited departments. A bibliometric method was used to analyse the trends and challenges of Humanities and Social Sciences research by using research data reflecting on ongoing and completed Arts, Humanities and Social Science research publications submitted by staff and students from 1994 – 2008 to the university’s Research Office. Data was analysed by categorising research output according to overall research publication by department, publication in accredited (SAPSE) journals by each department, author productivity, and research output by categories. Pearson’s correlation analysis was applied to test whether there was any correlation between registered research projects and research publications. Results indicate that strong AH&SS research engagement and publication exist at the university. Most research output was in the form of journal articles and conference papers. There was also growing postgraduate research output in the form of Masters and Doctoral dissertations. AH&SS research is generally multidisciplinary in nature. We noted that the system for capturing completed Masters and Doctoral research reports at the university is inadequate. The paper raises other issues that are important for AH&SS research and development.
- ItemRekindling enlightenment in the Humanities and Social Sciences in the 21st century: Proceedings of the 4th annual conference of the Faculty of Arts held on 22 - 23 September 2010, at the University of Zululand, South Africa.(University of Zululand, 2010) Ocholla, Dennis N.; Nzama, Thandi; ;The aim of the conference was to provide an interdisciplinary platform for sharing knowledge on research activities and related scholarly and academic work by staff and students in the humanities and social sciences. The conference objectives were to: Popularize research and dissemination of research results Provide a platform for networking among staff and students Promote and encourage constructive scholarly debate Enable free interaction and exchange of ideas Provide a forum where staff and students can showcase their research output and academic work Provide an interface and interactive environment for disseminating and filtering research outcome before publication in scholarly journals Enable the creation of a faculty research open access repository for interdisciplinary research output in humanities and social sciences Promote knowledge sharing and transfer through open discussions.
- ItemInvestigating the information needs of sandwich and part-time students of two public universities in Ogun State, Nigeria(University of Zululand, 2010-01) Adesoye, Abayomi Ebenezer; Amusa, Oyintola IsiakaThis study investigated the information needs and impediments to access to information among the sandwich and parttime students of two public universities in Ogun State, Nigeria. The two universities are Olabisi Onabanjo University (OOU) and Tai Solarin University of Education (TASUED). Questionnaires were used to gather data from 4999 respondents out of 5075 students sampled. The study identified that both male and female pursue part-time/sandwich courses for one reason or another. Their courses of study cut across Arts, Education, Social Sciences, Sciences, and Applied Sciences; and their information needs relate mainly to their studies and other socio-economic issues. The information format preference of the students is both print and non-print. However, their institutional libraries fall short of meeting their information needs due to some problems, prominent among which are inadequate library facilities, and inadequate ICT and library use skill. The study recommended that the universities should recognize the right of their students to access accurate information in the desired formats; provision of practical oriented ICT and library use skill; subscription to electronic resources for the use of staff and students and review of the students’ study packs.
- ItemHealth caregivers' approach towards the rehabilitation of HIV and AIDS persons in uMhlathuze About Current issue Previous issues Submit a paper Contact the Editor OA African Journal Archive(University of Zululand, 2010-01) Cobham, E.I.; Ntombela, N.H.This study examined health caregivers’ approach to the rehabilitation of HIV and AIDS persons in uMhlathuze from a social work perspective. The study was a bid to know the efficacy of approaches used in rehabilitating HIV and AIDS persons. In generating data for the study, both qualitative and quantitative research methods, largely through survey by interview and questionnaire and content analysis by review of extant literature was applied. A sample of 50 respondents was purposively drawn from three health centres in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, namely Ngwelezana Hospital, Richards Bay Clinic and eNseleni Community Health Centre, by the use of a questionnaire. The interview schedule was administered on 15 respondents in a face-to-face interview. They were also among the 50 respondents that participated in answering the questionnaire: 3 respondents from Richards Bay, 6 from eNseleni CHC and 6 from Ngwelezana Hospital. The study recommends that efforts be made towards the overhauling of equipment, facilities and skilled man-power, in the rehabilitation process.
- ItemMapping research areas and collaboration in the College of Human Sciences, University of South Africa(University of Zululand, 2010-01) Onyancha, Omwoyo BosireThis paper highlights the crucial role that research in the humanities and social sciences can and should play in policy making, business, innovation, etc. The paper also identifies the challenges faced by researchers in the humanities and social sciences and these include the continued marginalization of such research compared with research in the natural sciences disciplines; the relegation of humanities and social sciences theory and methodology; the lack of funding of research; the lack of time for researchers due to increased teaching loads and administration. Opportunities have been identified that can be seized to make research visible by ensuring that it answers the needs of society and policy makers, and that there is more collaboration, partnership and interdisciplinary research. The paper also draws upon the experience at the University of Botswana
- ItemThe usage of African languages in three selected contemporary German novels set in Africa(University of Zululand, 2010-01) Jordaan, DoretThis paper will focus on the use of indigenous African languages as well as the acquisition of language as a motif in selected contemporary German novels set in Africa. The aim of this paper is to show where the portrayal of indigenous languages fits into the quest for high sale figures as the German contemporary novel set in Africa aims to provide the greatest amount of entertainment to the largest number of readers (cf. Nusser 2000:13; Jordaan 2008:31). The word ‘contemporary’ refers to approximately the last ten years and ‘German’ to novels written in the German language, i.e. novels from Switzerland (for example) are also included. The nature, quantity and function of utterances from three selected contemporary German novels will be presented, in order to show how the use of African languages in these novels can create, perpetuate and resolve suspense in the plot.
- ItemChallenges of sustainable rural tourism development in KwaZulu-Natal(University of Zululand, 2010-01) Nzama, Thandi A.Tourism has emerged as one of the strategic instruments and policy tools for community and regional development in Southern Africa (Rogerson, 2007 in Saarinen, et al. 2009). Gradually, tourism is rotating to the political centre stage as an instrument of social and economic empowerment (Binns & Nel, 2002). Consequently, local government authorities have instituted initiatives for promoting tourism as a sustainable economic driver in their municipalities. Sustainable rural tourism development is widely supported because it does not threaten the integrity of the ecological and social systems upon which communities and societies are dependent. Marien & Pizam in Wahab & Pigram (2004:165) argue that since communities are constantly changing, like the nature of tourism, evaluating community’s sensitivity and associated impacts should not be regarded as an temporary event but as an ongoing process. This study focuses on the strategic development of sustainable rural tourism in the rural areas of KwaZulu-Natal, more specifically Ntambanana Municipality. The objectives of the study were as follows: (a) To identify natural and sociocultural resources that can be used for rural tourism development. (b) To assess the participation level of local communities in tourism development. (c) To establish the extent to which the tourism policies and strategies are implemented. (d) To identify the capacity of the local communities to develop tourism products. (e) To reveal the challenges that impede sustainable rural tourism development. Data from a sample size of 320 were collected and analysed using the SPSS programme. The findings of the study indicated that there is potential for natural, cultural and heritage tourism due to the existence of a variety of related resources. The findings, however, indicated that local people are not aware of these resources hence the lack of participation in tourism development. Various strategies were suggested for raising social awareness and the promotion of cultural and heritage resources in the rural area.
- ItemEnlightenment and virginity(University of Zululand, 2010-01) Addison, CatherineThis paper attempts to demystify the vexed question of female virginity using the light of reason and a sceptical, feminist viewpoint. Starting with a historical and cultural survey of beliefs about virginity, it goes on to ask the ontological question What is virginity? In the process of answering this question, it examines biological, historical, psychosexual and cultural evidence to reach the con clusion that virginity does not really exist, since it cannot – at least, in the contemporary world – be defined or measured. Virginity is still idealised in many communities because male hegemony persists; a belief in the importance of virginity is a measure of social control of women. Fortunately for many women, however, it has always been and still is possible to fake virginity, in the twenty-first century as in all previous ages.
- ItemBridging the transactional gap in Open Distance Learning (ODL) : the case of the University of South Africa (Unisa)(University of Zululand, 2010-01) Mbatha, Blessing; Naidoo, LynetteThe aim of this paper is to map and audit the availability and use of e-learning resources by Communication Science students at the University of South Africa (UNISA), in order to ensure that they provide a seamless learning experience to bridge the transactional distance in its Open Distance Learning (ODL) context. The Communication Science students targeted were COMSA executives and Unisa Radio employees. To serve the goal of the paper the following specific objectives were formulated: to establish types of e-learning resources available at Unisa, and to identify the benefits of elearning at Unisa. This study is informed by Michael Moore’s Transactional Distance theory. This theory, which focuses on dialogue, transactional distance and telecommunication systems, has been widely applied in many similar studies. A survey research design was used whereby questionnaires were administered to all COMSA executives and 50% of Unisa Radio student employees who were chosen using simple random sampling. The data gathered was analysed using thematic categorisation and tabulation and the findings were presented descriptively. The findings indicate that Unisa provides a variety of e-learning resources for its students. In addition, computers and the internet are most useful to students’ studies. It should be mentioned that e-learning facilitates and opens avenues for effective teaching. This study focused only on the availability and use of e-learning by Communication Science students at Unisa. Therefore, it will be necessary for a broader study to be undertaken which will focus on academic and ICT staff as well as students chosen across the Unisa community.