Genome data mining, annotation, and phylogenetic analysis of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases in the fungal class Pezizomycetes

Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs/P450s) are heme proteins that play a role in organisms’ primary and secondary metabolism. P450s play an important role in organism adaptation since lifestyle influences P450 composition in their genome. This phenomenon is well-documented in bacteria but less so in fungi. This study observed this phenomenon where diverse P450 complements were identified in saprophytic and ectomycorrhizal Pezizomycetes. Genome-wide data mining, annotation, and phylogenetic analysis of P450s in 19 Pezizomycetes revealed 668 P450s that can be grouped into 153 P450 families and 245 P450 subfamilies. Only four P450 families, namely, CYP51, CYP61, CYP5093, and CYP6001, are conserved across 19 Pezizomycetes, indicating their important role in these species. A total of 5 saprophyte Pezizomycetes have 103 P450 families, whereas 14 ectomycorrhizal Pezizomycetes have 89 P450 families. Only 39 P450 families were common, and 50 and 64 P450 families, respectively, were unique to ectomycorrhizal and saprophytic Pezizomycetes. These findings suggest that the switch from a saprophytic to an ectomycorrhizal lifestyle led to both the development of diverse P450 families as well as the loss of P450s, which led to the lowest P450 family diversity, despite the emergence of novel P450 families in ectomycorrhizal Pezizomycetes.
Dissertation submitted to the Faculty of Science and Agriculture in accordance with the requirements for the master’s degree in science in the Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, at the University of Zululand, 2022.