Anthropology and Development Studies

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    Situational analysis of the impact of student-rented houses on student mental health in a rural comprehensive university
    (University of Zululand, 2022) Lekoa Née Rantsoti, Mammusa Rosinah
    The situation of mental health impact of student rented housing on rural university student is a complex phenomenon and need to be explored in multiple ecological systems. Using multiple theories, the study investigated the complex interrelated issues that affect the mental health of the student tenants in rented houses in a rural-based comprehensive university. Data were drawn from a qualitative study. A purposive sample of 30 students and 3 university professionals participated in the study. The data were collected through in-depth individual interviews and focus group discussions. Furthermore, some observations were done as part of the interviews to confirm what the students asserted during the interviews. The study found that the situation in the rented houses is not environmentally healthy in most of the rented houses; also, the security and safety of students are highly compromised by amadabuka. Secondly, the study established that students go through traumatic experiences that constantly affect their mental health. These experiences further affect the academic responsibilities of the students in that students’ laptops and phones that they use for studying get stolen. Thirdly, the study suggests that anxiety, fear, and depression due to compromised security were prevalent among the student tenants. Lastly, through an appreciative approach, the students suggested an ecological and interconnected approach to improving the situation in rented. Although the study was limited to a small sample and was undertaken in one university in a rural area, generalization of the findings is not possible. Yet, the findings have demonstrated practical implications for community housing developers, public health practitioners and researchers, student support and faculty members, higher education researchers and policymakers. These findings provide an opportunity for the designing of targeted interventions that will enhance the mental health of student tenants. Also, the finding provides a better lens to understand the mental health challenges of students in rented houses. In conclusion, the study makes a theoretical contribution in that the results help in articulating the underlying processes by which student-rented houses influence the mental health of students. Hence, helping in developing a better understanding of impactful intervention models.
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    Evaluating non-profit organisations in alleviating unemployment in the Eastern Cape province, South Africa “a case study of the Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality, 1997-2017”
    (University of Zululand, 2022) Henna, Elliot Thembinkosi
    In developing countries such as South Africa, Non-profit Organisations (NPOs) are regarded as promising initiatives that can be used to alleviate unemployment. Consequently, NPOs have been incorporated into development and conservation policies and strategies in many countries. This incorporation has put more pressure on NPOs to deliver on their mission and vision, but most importantly, to deliver on their mandate to alleviate poverty and create jobs that can alleviate unemployment. The study aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of Non-profit Organisations in alleviating unemployment in the Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa between the periods from 1997 to 2017. A Sustainable Livelihoods Approach was employed. The research methodology employed was the qualitative research design and data was collected using a workshop and interviews. The data was analysed by employing a thematic data analysis system. The findings showed that firstly, most NPO participants did not believe that the environment in which Non-profit Organisations operated was conducive to creating jobs that could alleviate unemployment. Secondly, the findings showed that the Department of Social Development was not accessible to NPOs and their involvement is seen only on established NPOs. Thirdly, the findings showed that one of the greatest challenges experienced by these NPOs was a lack of financial support. Fourthly, the findings showed that the four NPO sectors selected for the study provided programmes that were in line with the government’s programmes. Sectors included in the study were Development and Housing, Culture and Recreation, Education and Research, and Social Services (some). Lastly and fifthly, the findings showed that NPOs could be used as an effective tool to create jobs if they were recognised as vehicles of change.
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    The contribution of rural enterprises to rural development within the Zululand district municipality in KwaZulu Natal
    (University of Zululand, 2019-01) Chamane, Ziphezinhle
    The role that both farming and non-farming rural enterprises play in rural development has been recognised worldwide. These enterprises are able to create jobs, alleviate poverty and help in achieving food security. This study focuses on assessing the contribution of rural enterprises on rural development in the Zululand District Municipality (ZDM). Various methods such as: snowball, purposive sampling technique were used in selecting participants in this study. For instance, snowball method was used to select twenty rural enterprises, a purposive method was used to select seventeen government officials from the Department of Agriculture and Department of Rural Development and Land Reforms, while purposive method was used to select fifty employees of rural enterprises. Data was collected using a mixed method approach which included the structured questionnaire which was administered to rural enterprise owners and government officials, and an interview schedule which was used for focus groups formed by employees of the rural enterprises. The results revealed that there were more farming enterprises than non-farming enterprises. The rural enterprises were not sustainable since there were challenges which included: lack of access to finance, lack of entrepreneurship skills, and limited access to markets. The well formulated policies to support both farming and non-farming enterprises. However, the non-farming enterprises were neglected when during the implementation of the policies. Associations that existed and which the participants were members of were those aiming at stimulating rural farming, conversely, there was no evidence of associations for non-farming enterprises. In conclusion, for the rural enterprises to contribute significantly to rural development, the government, non-governmental organisations and financial sector must work together and find better mechanisms of stimulating them.
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    Factors influencing equitable access to improved water supply in uMlalazi Local Municipality
    (University of Zululand, 2021-12) Bhengu Ntokozo Herdwirg
    The fact that water is necessary for life is undeniable. One of the most difficult challenges for many local governments is providing basic services to all South Africans. The global community has made positive advances in many fields, but the basic needs of man, such as clean water, remain a mirage. For healthy survival, growth, and development, safe drinking water and good hygiene are essential. Various factors affect the equal and equitable access of households to improved water. The Department of Water and Sanitation (DWS) is responsible for ensuring that all South African citizens have access to basic water supply and that water and sanitation services are delivered rapidly. The Department of Water and Sanitation is responsible for managing water supply schemes for major rural areas and villages with the assistance of district municipalities. The DWS as the National Regulator is responsible for the governance of water resources of the country and ensuring accountability amongst other key players such as water service authorities (WSAs) and water service providers (WSPs). The study examined community respondents’ perceptions about the nature of water supply services they receive and water resources available in the area. In conducting the study, a descriptive design was used. One sub-location was randomly selected from each of the two wards with a sample of 274 respondents composed of 193 females and 81 males. Data was collected using questionnaires. Data analysis was done using descriptive statistics and presented using charts and frequency tables. Hypothesis was tested based on the significance level. This was against an alternative hypothesis which assumed that there is a significant relationship between the economic scale and distribution of water services in the uMlalazi Local Municipality. The findings showed that the chi-square values for the variables were; size of economy (chi-square = 30.445a, df = 2, p-value = 0.00 and n= 274); access to pipe water within dwelling (chi-square = 109.540a, df = 2, p-value = 0.00 and n = 274); dependence on surface water (chi-square = 212.723a, df = 1, p-value = 0.00 and n = 274), water quality (chi-square = 115.635b, df = 2, p-value = 0.00 and n = 274), decreased water supply (chi-square = 12.314a, df=2, p-value = .002 and n = 274) and commitment to eradicate backlogs (chi-square = 30.445a, df= 2, p-value = 0.00 and n = 274). As a result, the study indicates that equitable water availability has an impact on health, human development, and economic growth. The findings indicated that a iv lack of water might constitute a severe threat to public health and community development, since widespread consumption of dirty surface water could expose the population to disease (bacteria) infections transmitted through water. Findings also discovered that household’s access to improved water supply was largely determined by their income, and home location, on the other hand, were important variables in gaining access to better water for other domestic purposes whilst access to water is better for other household uses. The effect is anticipated to increase among low income rural households, expand the rural-urban development divide, and intensify public dissent and conflict among rural water end-users. Furthermore, the data demonstrated that water plays an important role in rural socioeconomic development. As a result, water resource management that is sustainable may be able to solve challenges like equitable improved water access. The study findings further showed that the community at large were dissatisfied with water provision. Government direct involvement in participation, cooperation, coordination and developing a culture of empowerment should bring better water services for the local community of uMlalazi. The study recommends that one of the main pipelines from the plant to uMlalazi should be installed and awareness campaign for effective and efficient use of water should be launched. This might help ease and improve the present precarious situation.
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    A case study of gendered differences in land ownership in Nkomazi, Mpumalanga, South Africa
    (University of Zululand, 2021-09-22) Mubecua, Mandla Abednico
    South Africa has a dual land property rights system in which land can be distributed and owned under statutory or customary communal laws. The study aimed to understand gendered differences in land ownership in the Nkomazi Local Municipality in the context of such customary and statutory laws. It focused on how such gendered differences affect women and female farmers in the same community noting that globally, women were often oppressed by patriarchal and cultural systems. The study, therefore, relied on the legal pluralism theory which asserts that modern societies are not only governed under the power of the state but under pluralistic forces that hold different levels of acceptability to the people governed. It also relooked the feminist political ecology, a theory that relates gender to the access and ownership of natural resources including land. The study adopted a phenomenological research design guided by a critical theory paradigm that aims to empower repressed groups and transform societies. It took a qualitative research approach where data was collected from a sample of 37 participants who included male and female farmers, female residents who were not into farming, municipal and government officials and traditional leaders using semi-structured, face-to-face interviews. Collected data were analysed using thematic analysis on the Atlas.ti.8 software. The analysis generated seven themes leading to the conclusion that gendered land ownership differences are a reality in the Nkomazi Local Municipality. They manifest through differences in ease of land ownership between men and women, differences in land sizes, the security of tenure and access to training and support. Gendered land ownership differences result in gendered poverty and worsen the economic plight of women who rely more on the land than men. The study concludes that patriarchal traditional systems as institutionalised in customary law systems are the main force behind unequal access to land between men and women. While statutory laws and a gender-sensitive constitution have been crafted, the excessively overt application of customary law continues to deny women the rights to equality on land issues. The study recommended an implementation framework to resolve gendered land ownership differences and the discrimination of women on land issues. It also recommended the use of new land distribution opportunities to address land ownership inequalities, the codification of customary law, the enforcement of gender quotas on traditional councils and supporting women’s land-related activism as some of the possible solutions to the unbalanced land ownership structure in the Nkomazi Local Municipality.
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