Anthropology and Development Studies

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    Factors contributing to sustainable water supply at uMhlathuze Local Municipality research report
    (University of Zululand, 2023) Buthelezi, Fundakubo Siyanda
    The present study focuses on the factors contributing to sustainable water supply at uMhlathuze Local Municipality. The shortage of water has a negative impact in gardening, which affects most of rural areas that are more dependent on subsistence farming to secure food. The study questions how to rural people at uMhlathuze Local Municipality generates their livelihood if the water is poorly supplied. Hence, this puts lives of citizens at risk. It is for that reason; the present study focuses on determining factors contributing to water supplies in uMhlathuze Local Municipality. The study used explorative research design which linked with qualitative method. Semi-structured interview was considered for data collection. Regarding sampling method, the study used a purposive sampling, which helped the researcher to obtain data from relevant participants. Relating to findings of the study, factors contributing to sustainable water supply at uMhlathuze local municipality were determined by the study objectives and the research findings. The study shows that the municipality supplies water through water pipes and water tankers. However, there are still communities that are without water and some villages get water for a short time and leaves again while there is no meeting or announcement made regarding that problem. Moreover, the other factor is an insufficient budget which challenges the municipality to be unable to implement new projects to help deal with the backlog. The study also indicated that the municipality does send a truck of water to supply water in some areas; however, the drivers are selling water that was meant to be supplied for free. There is also illegal connection of pipes which makes the distribution of water be difficult in those areas. The findings of the study also show that there are reservoirs built to provide water in the communities within the municipality but cannot be relied upon. Therefore, the study recommends that uMhlathuze Local Municipality should have a proper way to monitor the illegal connection of water pipes in the municipality and have a framework that guide the water truck to deliver water without demanding incentives. The study further suggest that the municipality should learn and train its officials to use it finances equally to ensure that water is allocated to all the households and fund-raise money to ensure sustainability of their projects.
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    Modernisation of small-scale farming as a strategy to improve rural economic development in uMzinyathi District Municipality
    (University of Zululand, 2023) Mbatha, Mfaniseni Wiseman
    ABSTRACT The overarching aim of the study was to investigate the experiences of farmers on the modernisation of small-scale farming as a strategy to improve rural economic development in the uMzinyathi District. The study employed a qualitative approach with explorative research design. This has been used to determine more detailed feelings, opinions, and experiences of participants with regard to their participation in small-scale farming and rural economic development. The target population consisted of small-scale farming cooperatives (1), municipal officials (1 and consisted of 5 participants per focus group discussion), ward councillors (1) from each local municipality and extension officers (2) from the only one available district department. The overall sample size of the study was fifty (50) participants. These participants were sampled through the use of both convenience (small-scale farmers and small-scale farming cooperatives) and purposive (government officials) non-probability sampling methods. The in-depth interviews, participant observations, and focus group discussions were used to collect primary data from these participants, while documental analysis was used to collect secondary data. The process of data presentation and analysis was undertaken through the use of thematic analysis and NVivo version 11. The critical aspects of the findings show that farmers relied more on the traditional methods of farming and partially integrated them with the modern methods of farming. The lack of technological use and poor infrastructural development were reported as the main problems that obstruct the modernisation of farming within the study area. The findings further confirmed the existence of the dualistic economies within the study area. However, small-scale farming is mostly associated with the Second Economy, which is dominated by people who undertake agricultural-related informal economic activities. The labour force in this economy is not covered or protected by any job security because of the lack of policies that guide the operation of small-scale farming. This study recommends that the government at all levels must develop a supporting strategy to prioritise small-scale farming. The government approach to the establishment of a sectoral support strategy must include the provision of input services and infrastructural facilities, more especially in areas where small-scale farmers are wholly directed to undertake agricultural activities.
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    Community-based rehabilitation as a strategy for disability services and for encouraging the involvement of disabled people in the community development of the City of uMhlathuze Municipality
    (University of Zululand, 2023) Mthethwa, Charmaine Sibahle
    It is visible in various disability studies that there is still a challenge in fully integrating disability in most African countries. These challenges include poverty barriers, employment barriers, stigma against people with disabilities, educational barriers and inequality barriers. Despite the policies that have been developed to solve these disability issues, there is still a lack of effectiveness in the implementation of these policies. This research investigates the effectiveness of the Community-Based Rehabilitation approach in promoting community development through the involvement of people living with disabilities. The CBR approach consists of five components, and each consists of five elements. These elements are health, education, livelihood, social and empowerment. This CBR approach was initiated to improve the protection of the rights of people living with disabilities and also provide them with equal opportunities in order to improve service delivery for people living with disabilities. However, there still needs to be more knowledge on the effectiveness of its implementation due to the lack of resources and knowledge among CBR stakeholders. This study investigates this effectiveness using a qualitative research methodology and adopts the narrative research design.
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    The political orientation of Dr Nelson R. Mandela and iNkosi Mangosuthu G. Buthelezi – a comparative study
    (University of Zululand, 2023) Zikhali, Bongani Maswidi
    This dissertation examines the political orientations of two influential figures in South African history: Dr. Nelson R. Mandela and Inkosi Mangosuthu G. Buthelezi. Both leaders played pivotal roles in shaping the political landscape of South Africa during the apartheid era and its transition to democracy. Mandela, as the iconic leader of the African National Congress (ANC) and later the first democratically elected President of South Africa, and Buthelezi, as the leader of the Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) and a prominent advocate for Zulu interests, offer contrasting perspectives on political ideology, strategy, and vision for the country. Drawing on a range of primary and secondary sources, including speeches, interviews, autobiographies, and scholarly analyses, this comparative study seeks to explore the ideological foundations, strategic approaches, and leadership styles of Mandela and Buthelezi. Key areas of analysis include their respective commitments to non-violence versus armed struggle, their approaches to negotiations and reconciliation, their visions for a post-apartheid South Africa, and their relationships with other political actors and movements. By examining these dimensions, this dissertation aims to shed light on the complexities of political leadership in a deeply divided society and to provide insights into the factors that shaped the trajectories of the anti-apartheid struggle and the transition to democracy in South Africa. Additionally, the study seeks to contribute to a deeper understanding of the nuances of political ideology, strategy, and leadership in contexts of social and political transformation. Ultimately, this comparative analysis of Mandela and Buthelezi's political orientations offers valuable insights into the complexities of leadership and political ideology in the context of South Africa's struggle for liberation and democratic consolidation. It also underscores the importance of understanding the diverse perspectives and strategies that have shaped the country's political history and continue to influence its trajectory in the postapartheid era. OKUHUNYUSHWE NGOLIMI LWESIZULU NGOKUFINGQIWE Lolu cwaningo lucubungula ipolitiki yabantu ababili ababenethonya emlandweni waseNingizimu Afrika: uDkt Nelson R. Mandela kanye neNkosi Mangosuthu G. Buthelezi. Bobabili abaholi badlala indima ebalulekile ekulolongeni isimo sezombusazwe eNingizimu Afrika ngesikhathi sobandlululo kanye nokuguqukela kwayo entandweni yeningi. UMandela, njengomholi oqavilewe-African National Congress (ANC) futhi kamuva waba nguMengameli wokuqala wentando yeningi eNingizimu Afrika, kanye noButhelezi, njengomholi weNkatha Freedom Party (IFP) kanye nommeli ovelele wezimfuno zamaZulu, banikeza imibono ehlukene. ngemibono yepolitiki, isu, kanye nombono wezwe. Kususelwa emithonjeni eminingi eyisisekelo neyesibili, okuhlanganisa izinkulumo, izingxoxo, umlando wokuphila kwabantu, kanye nokuhlaziywa kwezazi, lolu cwaningo lokuqhathanisa luhlose ukuhlola izisekelo zemibono, izindlela zamasu, kanye nezitayela zobuholi bukaMandela noButhelezi. Imikhakha ebalulekile yokuhlaziya ibandakanya ukuzibophezela kwabo ekungabini kodlame uma kuqhathaniswa nomzabalazo wezikhali, izindlela zabo zokuxoxisana nokubuyisana, imibono yabo ngeNingizimu Afrika yangemva kobandlululo, kanye nobudlelwano babo nabanye abadlali bezepolitiki nezinhlangano. Ngokuhlolisisa lezi zilinganiso, lolu cwaningo luhlose ukuveza ubunkimbinkimbi bobuholi bezepolitiki emphakathini ohlukene phakathi kanye nokuhlinzeka ngemininingwane mayelana nezinto ezakha umkhondo womzabalazo wokulwa nobandlululo kanye nokudlulela entandweni yeningi eNingizimu Afrika. kwengeza, lolu cwaningo luhlose ukufaka isandla ekuqondeni okujulile kwemibono yezepolitiki, isu, nobuholi ezimeni zoguquko lwezenhlalo nezepolitiki. Ekugcineni, lokhu kuhlaziya okuqhathanisayo kokuma kukaMandela kanye noButhelezi kwezombusazwe kunikeza ukuqonda okubalulekile ngobunkimbinkimbi bobuholi kanye nemibono yezepolitiki emzabalazweni weNingizimu Afrika wenkululeko kanye nokuhlanganiswa kwentando yeningi. Iphinde igcizelele ukubaluleka kokuqonda imibono namasu anhlobonhlobo alolonge umlando wezwe wezepolitiki futhi asaqhubeka nokuba nomthelela emgudwini wawo esikhathini sangemuva kobandlululo.
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    An Afrocentric analysis of social entrepreneurship as a tool for development in Johannesburg, South Africa
    (University of Zululand, 2023) Mofokeng, Neo Refiloe
    This thesis examines the idea of social entrepreneurship (SE) from an Afrocentric and postdevelopment perspective. The thesis argues that the idea of SE is often examined from a Eurocentric perspective which tends to ignore the African context in which development takes place thereby failing to yield positive results for the African societies that are intended to be the beneficiaries of SE and its development outcomes. In South Africa, SE is predominantly understood from a business management point of view while epistemically drawing from German ideas of Social Democracy—a development that misses the contextual-epistemic realities of its location. This study takes an Afrocentric and post-development approach to examine bot the epistemic and contextual relevance of social entrepreneurship in South Africa. To contribute to knowledge, the study appraises the relevance and value of SE’s social democratic epistemology to South Africa. Such an appraisal is undertaken from the view that traditionally, southern African society has been governed by the Afrocentric value of Ubuntu. Thus, posing the question of whether social democracy can be helpful to South African communities, and what adaptations, if any, would be required for this. Moreover, the study explores whether the practice (beyond theory) of social entrepreneurship is helpful from an Afrocentric viewpoint, as some ideas may be adaptable theoretically, but fail empirically. Finally, the study found that it is more important to fashion the progress of South African societies along the lines of flourishing as opposed to developing. This is so as development is value-laden and tied to modernity, whose basic epistemology and axiology are not always reconcilable with local epistemologies. On the other hand, flourishing allows societies to define their unique trajectories of progress such as ubumbano/letsema – a concept embracing collective progress instead of individual wealth, amongst other important ideas. The findings also show that the motivations for SE vary but have a common understanding of human needs which affirm beneficiaries’ dignity and humanness. Further, the findings reveal that social enterprises want to build ecologies of innovation and change, and be empathetic to people’s needs, and they have reservations with most government-led solutions as those tend to be exclusive, further creating new problems when trying to solve old ones.
University of Zululand