Psychology (Arts)

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    The influence of xenophobia on the social and psychological wellbeing of black non-South Africans in South Africa.
    (University of Zululand, 2020) Mathe, Vusi Clearance
    Background: The violent incidents continued to occur throughout South Africa, with traumatic attacks reported in six other provinces in 2008. The South African Red Cross Society (SARCS) mobilized hundreds of volunteers and staff from 35 local branches throughout the country in order to provide relief to those affected by the violence. In a briefing of the diplomatic community by the Minister of Safety and Security in Pretoria in 2008, it was stated that there over 4,661 incidents and that 519 people had been arrested. The study sample comprised 69 research participants who 5 were targeted at the University of Zululand, and foreigners who were found in rural and urban areas which were hardest hit by xenophobia in the past two to three years. It comprised of 22 males and 47 females. Aims: The study investigated the influences of xenophobia on social and psychological wellbeing of black non-South Africans in South Africa. The aim of the study was to determine the influences of xenophobia on the psychological wellbeing of black non-South Africans. Method: In this study, the researcher used qualitative and descriptive survey research to explore and describe the experiences of people who have experienced xenophobic attacks in South Africa. Data was collected through an interview schedule. Responses from the research participants were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) (Version 25). Results: Findings of this study revealed that black non-South Africans remained with mental disorders such as depression, or anxiety due to xenophobic attacks. Most research participants also indicated that anxiety, as a psychological disorder, was one of the lasting effects of xenophobic violence. There is a persistent fear that a re-occurrence of xenophobic violence will shatter the tenuous calm. Many black non South Africans have packed their few remaining belongings and left volatile areas. Conclusion: Information obtained from research participants was considered to be sufficiently substantial to warrant analysis. The research methods employed provided answers to the most basic questions posed in the study, and assisted the researcher in his analysis of information obtained from participants.
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    Evaluation of an HIV/AIDS peer education programme at two Universities of Technology in KwaZulu-Natal: dual perspectives of students and peer educators
    (University of Zululand, 2020) Kweyama, Lucia Thembisile
    Peer education is a peer-driven approach to information-sharing and promotion of behavioural change amongst groups, including youth in schools and young adults in tertiary institutions. Peer education is based on the recognition of youth as potentially powerful agents of change and due to their shared similarities and accessibility to targeted populations, are deemed particularly effective in promoting positive behaviours, healthy lifestyle choices and encouraging social awareness and responsibility. The reported study investigated the perceived impact and efficacy of peer education programmes at two universities of technology in KwaZulu-Natal, namely Durban University of Technology (DUT) Midlands Campus and Mangosuthu University of Technology (MUT) in Umlazi. The research sample comprised twenty-four peer educators, ten students who had participated in peer education programmes and two health promoters. Focus groups and individual semi-structured qualitative interviews were the methods used to collect data. The research findings suggest that the notion of peer educator identity is a distinct identity connected academically and developmentally to the broader student population, yet, unique in its responsibilities and range of practices. The findings also advance peer education as a novel ‘community of practice’ uniquely positioned within higher education to drive social awareness and responsibility and to effect tangible shifts in student identity and behaviour, particularly with respect to sexuality and HIV/AIDS. Highlighted by programme recipients was holistic personal growth and skills development, perceptual shifts in sexual and gender-role assumptions and stereotypes, increased awareness of sexual diversity, assertiveness and boundary-setting with respect to the handling of peer pressure, and an enhanced awareness of collective social responsibility to stop the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Recommendations include the development of a national HIV/AIDS peer education policy for the South African post-school education and training sector. Among other goals, to design and implement standardised peer education programmes with critical generic components that are sufficiently inclusive to address all aspects of social relevance to students and that are sufficiently flexible to be adapted to different institutional contexts. Recommendations for future research include targeting student leaders’ (political, religious, sport and recreation) perceptions and involvement in peer education programmes at tertiary institutions, with a view to optimising its accessibility, impact and efficacy
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    An investigation into the child rearing practices of parents and alcohol abuse by black children
    (University of Zululand, 2019) Hlengwa, Wellington Mthokozisi
    The Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health (2014) reported that alcohol is the third highest risk factor contributing to the large scale of disability and disease, and an eighth contributor to global deaths. Significant public health problems in South Africa result from excessive consumption of alcohol (Morajele & Ramsoomar, 2016). Schneider (2007) reported that in South Africa alcohol is responsible for 7% of deaths and 7.1% of the burden of diseases. In their study, Peltzer, Davids and Njuho (2011) assert that in South Africa, it is mostly the young that are most prone to extreme levels of alcohol consumption, therefore exposed to alcohol-related burden of diseases. The South African numbers are disproportionately high to those of peers globally (WHO, 2011, 2014). Hazardous behaviours including binge drinking as well as drinking to intoxicate, are on the rise. Despite all this, very few studies investigating alcohol abuse have been conducted in South Africa; except for the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of 1998 and 2003. In South Africa as in most countries, a gap has been observed in the literature on parental role and/or influence in their children’s self-destructive behaviours (i.e. including the abuse of alcohol) (Chapman & Werner- Wilson, 2008; Lamborn, Mounts, Steinberg & Dornbusch, 1991; Sprecher, Harris & Meyers, 2008). Most studies and intervention programmes deal with behaviour change on an individual; parents who have to deal with the ever-changing landscape of teenagers and young adults are left out as spectators; untrained to deal with parenting teenagers in the era of excessive substance abuse. The aim of this study is to bridge this gap by looking into the child-rearing practices and perceptions of parents on alcohol abuse of their adolescent children. Investigating Child Rearing Practices and Perceptions of Parents on Alcohol Abuse of their children will assist to find out what can be included in intervention programmes for parents. The focus of the study was on Black adolescents in Empangeni. The study consisted of a sample of 54 parents that were divided into five groups. Three groups consisted of ten people each, and then two groups of 12 people each. Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems and Family Systems Theories formed the central theories for the study. The study followed a qualitative design that adopted phenomenological approach principles in data collection and analysis i.e. Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) as presented by Lester (1999). iv Findings indicate a sense of helplessness and inadequacy on the part of the parents and/or caregivers regarding the appropriate parenting skills and strategies. These emanate from the disintegration of family structure, and from the fact that some parents blame the government for interfering on how they should raise their children. Parents therefore expressed a need for parent-oriented intervention programmes and support from the government and communitybased organisations. A Psychosocial Parenting Framework based on the themes (results) from this study is suggested for developing intervention programmes.
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    A career guidance counselling and assessment programme for disadvantaged high schools, in the case of the Eastern Cape, in South Africa
    (University of Zululand, 2019) Rungqu, Nokhanyo Marylin
    The study is a career assessment and counselling programme for disadvantaged high schools in the Eastern Cape Province, in South Africa. The specific aim was to guide learners through a process of career exploration in order to make appropriate career choices and plans. The sample consisted of 90 blacks, 1 coloured and 2 Indians from selected schools in the Eastern Cape Province. The main objectives were to formulate a career assessment and counselling programme, as an ongoing process of change, and not as an event, to empower disadvantaged students through their participation in the process; to nurture learning through engendering a tolerance of mistakes and differences in ideas, and to provide opportunities for the development of all. Using a qualitative research design, self-administered questionnaires were distributed to respondents. A convenient/purposive, non-probability sampling procedure was utilised. Descriptive statistics were used to to analyse demographic data, including frequencies and percentages. Qualitative data, obtained from open-ended questions of the survey questionnaire, were content analysed to identify the main themes. Nine themes were identified. The results showed that many disadvantaged high schools did not have educators who were qualified in career guidance issues. Furthermore, there was a lack of governmental support in career guidance in disadvantaged schools. Additionally, there was a lack of equipment and funding required in career guidance. It has been indicated that the use of psychologists and x psychometric assessment in career assessment will improve the quality of career guidance. It can be concluded that many disadvantaged and poor schools do not have educators who are qualified in career guidance issues. Disadvantaged schools do not have adequate resources such as money to pay qualified professionals to help learners in making optimised and better career decisions. The South African government is not supportive of these disadvantaged schools. Learners continue to be ignorant as far as career guidance issues are concerned. Many students are not aware of the benefits of counselling.
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    A phenomenological explication of the constructs of male circumcision among Sesotho speaking males in the contemporary South Africa
    (University of Zululand, 2018) Lephoto, Thembelani F.; Thwala, J.D.
    This study focused on exploring the different meanings that young South African Sesotho speaking males have about male circumcision. The believe is that due to the differences in the experiences, this should instigate for different constructs about the phenomenon. Trying to narrow the study, two groups of young Sesotho speaking males where established to work with comparatively; these are males which are medically circumcised and those that are traditionally circumcised. This study aimed at understanding the different social constructs which young circumcised Sesotho speaking males have to the phenomenon. The researcher followed a qualitative research method trying to unravel the topic. The researcher used snowball sampling to source his participant. The researcher gathered his data via personal interviews with participants and later analyzed it using IPA. It appeared that the meaning towards this phenomenon is really socially constructed rather than being universal. It varies according to ones beliefs, which are dictated by an individuals’ cultural, religious, and ethnic background. For some it is still highly considered a rite of passage to manhood. However, a controversial debate which forms part of the meaning of the phenomenon for others is that it plays a significant role of reducing chances of contracting HIV and other STI’s. Another interesting issue related to this phenomenon is the subject of the psychological and physical risks and benefits linked to the procedure. The findings of this study suggested that, even though medical circumcision may be highly recommended, it still leaves a room for doubt whether it is really safer than traditional circumcision. The study discovered that medically circumcised males suffered from both physical and psychological complications. With the repelling forces between the two dimensions of the phenomenon (medical and traditional), considering the health and safety of these young males, the question at hand is that how will our nation strike a balance between the two and yet posses their different meanings attached to the phenomenon.
University of Zululand