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Research output published on Open Access Journals from the Univerity of Zululand scholars


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Now showing 1 - 5 of 219
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    (Societatea de Stiinte Juridice si Administrative, 2021-10-02) Ngema, Nqobizwe Mvelo
    The problem of child marriages is prevalent in Sub-Saharan Africa and the UNICEF has estimated that more than 37 per cent of girls get married before reaching the age of 18 year, while more than11 per cent get married before the reaching the age of 15 years. Zimbabwe has enacted progressive legislation to address the dilemma of child marriages. However the problem of child marriages still persists and this paper shows that it is easy to change the law but not easy to change the society. This paper argues that legislative change is the first step to the right direction but a multi-pronged strategy is necessary to address child marriages. It is suggested that it is crucial to deal directly with the root causes of child marriages in addition to legislative change. The causes are, inter alia, poverty, peer pressure, teenage pregnancy and lack of education. One of the major causes is rooted in culture and religion such as the practice of kuzvarira and kuripa ngozi. Kuripa ngozi is practiced in order to appease the avenging spirit of a murdered person by compensating his family with a virgin bride and there is a general belief that failure to appease it might attract bad luck and even death for the entire family of the perpetrator. Over the years custom has influenced the attitude and behavior of people. Therefore to change the law without changing the mind-set of the people through educational campaigns would be tantamount to dealing with the symptoms instead of the real problem.
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    (Societatea de Stiinte Juridice si Administrative, 2021-06) Ngema, Nqobizwe Mvelo; Ndlovu, Lonias
    In Islamic law, child custody is divided into physical custody and legal custody. Physical custody is given to a child's mother during the age of dependency, while legal custody is automatically assigned to the child's father. For a mother to qualify for custody and retain it in terms of Islamic Law, she must, among other things, not remarry. This requirement unfairly discriminates against women because the same is not expected of the father. Moreover, a mother is expected to reside in an environment where the father can visit and come back the same day. Failure to adhere to the above requirements may lead to custody being taken away from the mother. Again, this is discriminatory and leaves much room for arbitrary decisions that might not be in children's best interests. The South African Common Law regulation of child custody is more likely to promote the best interests of the child than its Islamic counterpart. In a recent landmark judgment, the South African Supreme Court of Appeal (SCA) held that the failure to give full legal recognition to Muslim marriages amounted to the violation of Muslim spouses' right to equality, dignity, children's rights, and the right of access to courts. Moreover, all provisions of South Africa's Divorce Act will now apply to all Muslim marriages dissolved by divorce. Therefore, the SCA rightfully extended the Common Law position on child custody to Islamic marriages to safeguard the best interest of the child.
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    Virulence Factors and Antimicrobial Resistance in Salmonella Species Isolated from Retail Beef in Selected KwaZulu-Natal Municipality Areas, South Africa
    (MDPI, 2022-03-10) Naidoo, Serisha; Butaye, Patrick; Maliehe, Tsolanku S; Magwedere, Kudakwashe; Basson, Albert K; Madoroba, Evelyn
    Salmonellosis and antimicrobial resistance caused by non-typhoidal Salmonella are public health concerns. This study aimed at determining prevalence, serovars, virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella from beef products. Four-hundred beef samples from 25 retail outlets in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa were analyzed for Salmonella using standard methods, confirmation with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight and serotyping according to the White–Kauffmann–Le Minor scheme. The Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method was used to determine antimicrobial resistance against Cefotaxime, Kanamycin, Ampicillin, Amoxicillin, Trimethoprim Sulfamethoxazole, Ciprofloxacin, Chloramphenicol, Gentamicin Cefoxitin and Tetracycline. A polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect invA, agfA, lpfA, hilA, sivH, sefA, sopE, and spvC virulence genes. Salmonella was observed in 1.25% (5/400) of the samples. Four serovars (Enteritidis, Hadar, Heidelberg, Stanley) were identified. Almost all Salmonella were susceptible to all antimicrobials except S. Enteritidis isolate that was resistant to Tetracycline, Ampicillin and Amoxicillin. All Salmonella isolates carried at least two virulence factors. The findings indicate low Salmonella prevalence in meat from selected KZN retail beef; however, routine surveillance to monitor risk associated with virulence factors is required to mitigate potential outbreaks. The resistant S. Enteritidis highlights a need to routinely monitor antimicrobial resistance in order to enhance human health.
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    Presence and Virulence Characteristics of Shiga Toxin Escherichia coli and Non-Shiga Toxin–Producing Escherichia coli O157 in Products from Animal Protein Supply Chain Enterprises in South Africa
    (Marry Ann Liebert, 2022-06-10) Madoroba, Evelyn; Malokotsa, Keneiloe Portia; Ngwane, Cynthia; Lebelo, Sogolo; Magwedere, Kudakwashe
    Consumption of food that is contaminated with Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli (STEC) has been linked to serious foodborne disease outbreaks. Our aim was to provide a descriptive study on the presence and virulence factors of STEC and non-STEC O157 isolates recovered from 2017 diverse meat and meat product samples from all provinces of South Africa (n = 1758) and imported meat from South Africa’s major ports of entry (n = 259). A crosssectional study was undertaken to analyze raw intact meat, raw processed (nonintact) meat, and ready-to-eat (RTE) meat from cattle, game, sheep, pork, and poultry. Isolation was performed using International Organization for Standardization-based microbiological techniques, while detection and characterization were performed using real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and conventional PCR targeting the stx1,stx2, eae, and ehxA genes. A total of 28 of 1758 (1.59%; confidence interval [CI] 1.1–2) samples from the domestic market tested positive (n = 10 Escherichia coli O157:H7; n = 14 Escherichia coli O157: non-H7; and n = 4 non-O157 STEC), while 4/259 (1.54%; CI 0.4–4) samples from ports of entry tested positive for Escherichia coli O157:H7 based on RT-PCR. On average, diverse samples from domestic meat and meat products from cattle showed the highest number of positive samples (22/1758; 1.3%; CI 0.8–2). RTPCR detected more positive samples (n = 32) compared with culture (n = 17). Sixteen different virulence factor combinations were observed. Our findings demonstrate a relatively low presence of diverse STEC strains along the meat value chain. To our knowledge, this is the first extensive report in South Africa to analyze STEC and non-STEC O157 from local and imported samples from many animal species. This is important as it reveals virulence factors in STEC strains circulating in meat and meat products in South Africa, which contribute to the risk of infection.
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    Prevalence of Suicidal Tendencies and Associated Risk Factors among Nigerian University Students: A Quantitative Survey
    (Cross Mark, 2022-01-21) Lawrence, Kehinde
    Objective: Using a quantitative survey research approach, this study aims to investigate some risk factors associated with suicidal tendencies among undergraduate students in Nigeria. There is concern by society about the recent reported increased rate of suicide among undergraduate students in Nigeria Methods: A multistage sampling method was used to select 2 100 undergraduate students in South West Nigeria. A questionnaire consisting of indices of suicidal tendencies was used to collect data and logistic regression was employed as a statistical tool. Results and Discussion: Findings suggest that 151 (7.5%) of the respondents with risk factors such as alcoholism (OR = 1.02, {1.01–1.04}) and helplessness (OR = 1.04, {1.01–1.06}) reported strong and significant association (p < 0.05) with suicidal tendencies. Depression (OR = .985, {.960–1.01}), hopelessness (OR = .999, {.971–1.01}), self-worry (OR = 1.00, {.988–1.02}), self-doubt (OR = 1.00, {.983–1.03}), inefficacy (OR = .991, {.966–1.02}), age (OR = 1.00, {.043–2.325}), and gender (OR = 1.04, {.724–1.50}) showed weak and insignificant association with suicidal tendencies (p > 0.05). This study concludes that there is a slight prevalence of suicidal tendencies among undergraduate students, and that there is a need to introduce suicidal prevention education into the university curriculum as a way of containing the prevalence of suicide among adolescents and youths. Conclusion: For individuals identified with suicidal tendencies, studies should focus on the development of psychosocial interventions that can be used, such as counselling by psychologists and public health and social health workers. In the interim, urgent regular suicide awareness and prevention programs are suggested.
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