Browsing by Author "Maliehe, Tsolanku S"
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- ItemVirulence Factors and Antimicrobial Resistance in Salmonella Species Isolated from Retail Beef in Selected KwaZulu-Natal Municipality Areas, South Africa(MDPI, 2022-03-10) Naidoo, Serisha; Butaye, Patrick; Maliehe, Tsolanku S; Magwedere, Kudakwashe; Basson, Albert K; Madoroba, EvelynSalmonellosis and antimicrobial resistance caused by non-typhoidal Salmonella are public health concerns. This study aimed at determining prevalence, serovars, virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella from beef products. Four-hundred beef samples from 25 retail outlets in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa were analyzed for Salmonella using standard methods, confirmation with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight and serotyping according to the White–Kauffmann–Le Minor scheme. The Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method was used to determine antimicrobial resistance against Cefotaxime, Kanamycin, Ampicillin, Amoxicillin, Trimethoprim Sulfamethoxazole, Ciprofloxacin, Chloramphenicol, Gentamicin Cefoxitin and Tetracycline. A polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect invA, agfA, lpfA, hilA, sivH, sefA, sopE, and spvC virulence genes. Salmonella was observed in 1.25% (5/400) of the samples. Four serovars (Enteritidis, Hadar, Heidelberg, Stanley) were identified. Almost all Salmonella were susceptible to all antimicrobials except S. Enteritidis isolate that was resistant to Tetracycline, Ampicillin and Amoxicillin. All Salmonella isolates carried at least two virulence factors. The findings indicate low Salmonella prevalence in meat from selected KZN retail beef; however, routine surveillance to monitor risk associated with virulence factors is required to mitigate potential outbreaks. The resistant S. Enteritidis highlights a need to routinely monitor antimicrobial resistance in order to enhance human health.