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The anti-platelet aggregation activity of Rapanea melanophloeos -A Zulu medicinal plant

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dc.contributor.advisor Opoku, A.R.
dc.contributor.advisor Oyedeji, A.O.
dc.contributor.author Gwala, Phiwamandla Emmanuel
dc.date.accessioned 2011-06-17T07:58:18Z
dc.date.available 2011-06-17T07:58:18Z
dc.date.issued 2011
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10530/617
dc.description Submitted to the Faculty of Science and Agriculture, in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in the Department of Biochemistry and Microbioogy at the University of Zululand, 2011. en_US
dc.description.abstract Rapanea melanophloeos (L.) Mez is a medicinal plant that is used by Zulu traditional healers to manage blood-clot related diseases.Various extracts (methanol, nhexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and water) prepared from the bark of R. melanophloeos were screened for phytochemicals, antioxidant, and anti-platelet aggregation activity. Phytochemical screening of the plant showed the presence of tannins, terpenoids, alkaloids, saponins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids and phlobatannins. Steroids and anthraquinone were however not detected. The extracts strongly (>70%) scavenged 1, 1 -diphenyl-2-picryhydrazyl and 2, 2-azinobis 3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid free radicals. The extracts had 91% chelating effect on Fe2+ ions and exhibited concentration dependent reducing power. The extracts showed varying degrees of inhibition (21% to 97%) of rat platelet aggregation induced separately by thrombin, adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and epinephrine. The extracts further exhibited antiplatelets aggregation activity on enzymes (trypsin, papain and bromelain) treated platelets. The lethality of the extracts was tested on brine shrimps larvae. Hexane and chloroform extracts had LC50 values of 1068.731 mg/ml and 3648, 349mg/ml respectively. A triterpene (3β-Hydroxylanosta-9, 24-dien-21-oic acid) wasisolated and characterized (through various chromatographic techniques, extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy) from the ethyl acetate extract. The triterpene exhibited antiplatelet aggregation, and inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity. The cytotoxicity of the triterpene on two cell lines (HEK293 and HEPG2) gave LC50 values of 851.5 μg/ ml and 796.0 μg/ ml respectively. The results suggested that the extracts of Rapanea melanophloeos could be considered as herbal treatment for disease associated with blood clotting. en_US
dc.description.sponsorship National Research Foundation (NRF) en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.subject Rapanea melanophloeos (L.) Mez en_US
dc.subject Blood-clot related diseases en_US
dc.subject Phytochemical screening en_US
dc.title The anti-platelet aggregation activity of Rapanea melanophloeos -A Zulu medicinal plant en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US

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