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Ucwaningo olunzulu ngesakhiwo nobumqoka bamahubo nezaga zesizulu

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dc.contributor.advisor Khumalo, Z.L.M.
dc.contributor.author Donda, Godshero Nkonzoyakhe.
dc.date.accessioned 2011-08-01T07:35:33Z
dc.date.available 2011-08-01T07:35:33Z
dc.date.issued 1999
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10530/796
dc.description Submitted in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Doctor of Philosophy in the Department of IsiZulu Namagugu at the University of Zululand, 1999. en_US
dc.description.abstract Lolu cwaningo luhloIa isakhiwo kanye nobumqoka bamabubo kanye nezaga kumbe iziqubuIo zesiZulu. KumeIe sithole iqhaza elibanjwe yizaga namabubo ekuthuthukisweni kolimi IwesiZulu. Le ntuthuko yolimi incike nkomo ekusetshenzisweni kwamagarna, amalunga nezinhlamvu ekwakhiweni kwemigqa, imisho kanye namabinza. Kukulolu khalo lapho kutholakala incazelo enobunzulu enothisa futhi inonise izinjulamqondo nezinzululwazi ezisebunkondlweni obufukanyelwa ngarnabubo nezaga. Esahlukweni sokuqala kuvezwa inhloso yalolu cwaningo. Kuvela ukuthi abacwaningi abanakuphumelela kahle hle ukuhlaziya izinkondlo zesimanje uma belahlisa okwenyongo yenyathi isizinda sobunkondlo esisemabubeni nasezageni. Kuyahlaluka ukuthi kulukhuni ukuhlola amabubo nezaga njengengxenye yobuciko bomlomo ngaphandle kokusondeza isiko kanye nomculo. Isakhiwo nobumqoka bamabubo nezaga buqokwe ngoba kubonakele ukuthi yilapho ubunkondlo bezibongo zamakhosi, eziyisizinda sezinkondlo zesimanje buxajelelwe khona. Kunamagama athe phecelezi, enyusa izinga neqophelo lobunkondlo. Kuba yizinkobe esizihlafuna qede kuqine amabamba ukuba kusetshenziswe amagama esiwaziyo ukuze sithole incazelo ethe phecelezi, ebesingayilindele nesingayaziyo. Lokhu kufakazelwa yilesi saga esigama linye: Ntunjambili! Lesi saga asisitsheli ngendawo yaseNtunjambili, nangetshe likaNtunjambili lasezweni loDemane noDemazane. Ngalesi saga uShaka wayesuke ehlose ukuba impi yakhe iguqule indlela yokulwa. Lokho nje, kuyayikitaza ingqondo. Kuba wukudla kwayo okuyenza indize iyokhotha isibhakabhaka. Yehle iyobhukuda otweni oluphehla amanzi ngaphansi komhlaba. UKhumalo, (1993:66) uthi: Wayeyikhuza ngesokuyinqanda noma esokuyishintsha. Wawuzwa ekhuza uNtunjambili. Isahluko sesibili siqondene nesakhiwo kanye nezindikimba ezidingidwa ngamahubo. Isakhiwo samahubo siveza amahubo anesigqi sempi, uthando, nokufa. Umahluko osobala phakathi kwamahubo nezaga wukuthi amahubo ayahutshwa kepha izaga ziyakhuzwa. Ukuhutshwa kwawo kuwanika isigqi esehlukile kwesezinkondlo ezejwaye1ekile. Impimiso, ukudonsa, ukuphakama nokwehla kwephimbo enkondlweni eyejwayelekile akufani nasemahubeni. UNgcongwane, (1974:98) uthi: Die woorde wat gesing word, word gewoonlik nie op dieselfde wyse uitgespreek as wanneer daar gepraat word nie. Sang en praat kan nie dieselfde wees nie, al kan die woorde wat gebruik word nog dieselfde wees. Ubumqoka bamahubo obuvezwa yilesi sahluko, singaqoqeka ngokuba sicaphune uKhumalo, (1993:45): Yuhlobo olunomlando ongumgogodla wesizwe. Yuhlobo lolu oluphethe amahubo esizwe afana nemikhuleko yaso, kanye nawempi. Aphathwa ngesizotha esimangalisayo ngoba kwawona anesizotha. Avusa usinga, amadlingozi nombhejazane eNkosini, emabuthweni kanye nasezweni jikelele ngoba athinta izehlakalo ezimqoka zesizwe esezagcinwa njengomlando. Isahluko sesithathu siqondene nesakhiwo kanye nobumqoka bezaga. Ngokwesakhiwo kutholakala izaga ezimfishane nezinde. Ezageni ezimfishane kukhona ezigama linye, ezingadingi mpendulo kepha impendulo kuba yisenzo njengalezi: Ngadla! Khwishi! Maluju! Ntunjambili! Khumu! Zikhona izaga ezigama linye ezidinga impendulo njengalezi: Inselele! Woz' uyithathe! Rebe! WuSuthu! Ekhanda! Pho! Izaga ezinde zibonakala ngokuba induna isho wnusho bese iviyo liphendula ngomusho kumbe ibinza: Wawuyaphi? Wawuyaphi kwesensimbi, Iyashis' insimbi, Zish' ukhence? Ubumqoka bezaga wukunikeza umfutho namandla okuqukula into esindayo. Ezokweshela ziqunga insizwa isibindi ukuze ingesabi ukuzibika entombini. Ezempi zinika amabutho umhanehu nomqhanagu wokuya empini engasenandaba noma angafa. UKhumalo, (1993:63) uthi: Zikhuzwa ikakhulukazi ezimpini, nasemikhosini eyehlukene yesizwe, ukuvusa amadlingozi, usinga nombhejazane ezinsizweni. Zize zisuse usinga, ziqunge isibindi nje ngoba zakhiwe ngezehlakalo nezigameko zobunzima, zokuhlabana, zobuhlakani, zobunzulu, zokunqoba kwesizwe esithile. Isahluko sesme sithandanisa amahubo nezaga nobuciko kanye nobunyoningco obusetshenziswa yizimbongi ezibongweni zamakhosi. Kuze kube nemigqa equkulwa emahubeni injengoba injalo iyiswe ezibongweni zamakhosi kubuye kuhlanekezeleke. Kukhona amagama asezibongweni zamakhosi, agcina inkosi isibizwa ngawo, ahaywayo uma kuteketiswa inkosi. Lokhu kudalula ukuthi amahubo nezaga kuyingxenye engangatshazwa yobuciko bomlomo. Lokho kufakazelwa wukuxhumana . kolibo lwamakhosi kusuka kuIeyo ebusayo kuze kufike kuleyo eyadabuka oHlangeni. Kulolu lungelunge Iwezizukulwane ngezizukulwane kuyahutshwa, kuyakhuzwa futhi kuyabongwa Isahluko sesihlanu sibeka obala ubunkondlo bamahubo nezaga uma kuvela ukusetshenziswa kwezifengqo kuIo msebenzi wobuciko besizwe. Kuvela isifaniso, isingathekiso, ihaba, ifanamsindo, ukusikisela, umbhinqo, umbhuqo, ukwenzasamuntu kanye nokwenza-sasilwane. Isakhiwo esinongwe ngezifengqo siyolisa ulimi ukuze igama elilodwa emsebenzini wobuciko, likhulume kakhulu kunoma Iibhaliwe. Yile ncazelo enobunzulu eveza isigqizo zokunona kanye nokunonophala kolimi okhalweni lwezifengqo. Esahlukweni sesithupha kuvezwa isakhiwo sangaphandle emahubeni nasezageni. Kuvela amabinza, imigqa, amagama, amalunga, izinhlamvu kanye nezimpawu zokukhanyisa. Kukulolu khalo lapho sithola ukuxhumana, impindwa, imvumelwano kanye nesigqi. Lo mcako wengaphandle lamahubo nezaga awugcini ngokuhlobisa amahubo nezaga, kepha uletha ubunzulu, ukujiya kanye nokunonisa ingqikithi nenkotha yobunkondlo. Esahlukweni sokugcina kuvezwa ukuhlaziywa kocwaningo. Kulolu khalo kucofiywa kubuye kugqanyiswe konke okutholakele ocwaningweni obelwenziwa. Kuvela izincomo ezihambisana nezizathu ezidala kunconywe lokho okuphakanyiswayo. Inhloso yalezi zincomo wukudiliza amavundululu asahlala aze akhela ezinhliziyweni zabantu abafenyisa amahubo kanye nezaga. Esiphethweni kuboshwa onke amaxhama abe yinto eyodwa hnijokujoku esala ilenga iyaboshwa ukuze ithandaniswe nomqulu wonke. Eng = This research explores and analyses the composition and the significance of amahubo and izaga in isiZulu. The objective is to discover the role and the contribution of these two targeted terms towards the enrichment of the Zulu language. This study depends on the general language usage, terminological expansion, syllabification, prosodies, lines and verses found in amahubo and izaga. The semantic applicability of the words enriches the lines and the verses of the war-cries and the war-songs with highly poetic philosophy. The aim of this study is exposed in chapter one. The exposition demonstrates that it is difficult to analyse the modem poetry if the traditional poetry is ignored. The composition and the significance of izaga and amahubo has been chosen for the purpose of this study because it is where the inner core of the traditional praise poetry is embedded. It is difficult to understand the modern poetry if the traditional poetry is overlooked. It is in the traditional praise poetry where the problem of terminological confusion is solved. The words with deeper semantic value uplift the standard of poetry. There is a single-worded-war- cry: Ntunjambili! The above war-cry neither signifies the place of Ntunjambili nor the legendary rock 'Ntunjambili". This was Shaka's war-cry which commanded the regiments to change the strategy of their attack. This is philosophical and it puzzled the minds of the enemies. Khumalo, (1993:66) says: Wayeyikhuza ngesokuyinqanda noma esokuyishintsha. Wawuzwa ekhuza uNtunjambili. (He used the war-cry to command them to stop or change their fighting strategy. You could hear him saying Ntunjambili!) The second chapter concentrates on the composition and the significance of war-songs. It reveals the themes threshed in the war-songs. The rhythm of war, love and death is found. This chapter unfolds the difference between war-songs and war-cries i.e. the war-songs are sung while the war-cries are memorised. The rhythmic music found in amahubo differs from the normal rhythm of the general poetry. Pronunciation and the tonological supra-segmental qualities imposed on syllables is more emphatic in amahubo than in izaga and the normal poetry. Ngcongwane, (1974:98) says: Die woorde wat gesing word, word gewoonlik nie op dieselfde wyse uitgespreek as wanneer daar gepraat word nie. Sang en praat kan nie dieselfde wees nie, al kan die woorde wat gebruik word nog dieselfde wees. The significance of the war-songs as revealed by this chapter can be summarised by citing Khumalo, (1993:45): Yuhlobo olunomlando ongumgogodla wesizwe. Yuhlobo lolu omphethe amahubo esizwe afana nemikhuleko yaso, kanye nawempi. Aphathwa ngesizotha esimangalisayo * ngoba kwawona anesizotha. Avusa usinga, amadlingozi nombhejazane eNkosini, emabuthweni kanye nasezweni jikelele ngoba athinta izehlakalo ezimqoka zesizwe esezagcinwa njengomlando. (War songs have the historical background of the nation. They are the prayers of the nation. Some of them are sung in war. They are sung with dignity because they are dignified. They raise oomph to the king and his regiments. This enthusiasm causes the regiments to go to the battlefield with gusto because war-songs touch the nation's historical events.) The third chapter explores the composition and the significance of the war-cries in isiZulu. This chapter divides the war-cries into two categories, namely, short and long war-cries. The short war-cries are divided into a single-worded-war-cry which does not need an answer such as: Ngadla! (I have eaten!) Sigidi! (A million!) Khwishi! (To arms!) Maluju! (Let us stop fighting!) Ntunjambili! (Change the fighting strategy!) Khumu! (Stop fighting!) There are single-worded-war-cries which need answers: Inselele! Woz' uyithathe! (Let us fight! Let it be!) Hebe! WuSuthu! The long war-cries are characterised by the leader calling a sentence and the answer becoming a sentence or a verse such as: Wawuyaphi? Wawuyaphi kwesensimbi, Iyashis' insimbi, Zish' ukhence? (Why did you go? Why did you attack Nsimbini people, The iron is hot, We hear its sounds when it falls). The war-cries encourage people to lift the heavy loads. They give the young men the zeal and inherent desire to court or propose for love from the ladies. War-cries give the regiments the prowess to fight. Khumalo, (1993:63) says: Zikhuzwa ikakhulukazi ezimpini, nasemikhosini eyehlukene yesizwe, ukuvusa amadlingozi, usinga nombhejazane ezinsizweni. Zize zisuse usinga, ziqunge isibindi nje ngoba zakhiwe ngezehlakalo nezigameko zobunzima, zokuhlabana, zobuhlakani, zobunzulu, zokunqoba kwesizwe esithile. (They are normally used in battles and wars, national ceremonies, to give young men enthusiasm and prowess to fight. This happens because they are composed of the events of hardship, killing, intelligence, philosophy and the proud conquering of a certain tribe.) The fourth chapter links the poetry found in amahubo and izaga with the traditional praise poetry used by the king's bards. Some of the lines are taken as they are from the war-songs to the praises of the Zulu kings and vice versa. There are words that refer to the king's praises in amahubo. This proves that war-songs and war-cries are the part and parcel of the traditional literature or Folklore. The fifth chapter discusses the figures of speech which are sometimes used as imageries. The imagery is found in certain lines of amahubo and izaga. Those are simile, metaphor, hyperbole, paradox and personification. The use of imagery uplifts the standard of poetry as the word in the literary text have more semantic value than as it stands in isolation. The sixth chapter discusses the form of amahubo and izaga. The verses, lines, words, syllables and sound system of the language is discovered. This chapter elaborates on linkages, repetition, refrains, rhyme and rhythm. Chapter seven deals with the findings, recommendations and conclusion of the research. en_US
dc.language.iso zu en_US
dc.subject Zulu poetry en_US
dc.title Ucwaningo olunzulu ngesakhiwo nobumqoka bamahubo nezaga zesizulu en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US


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