UNIZULU Institutional Repository

Physical tests, hormonal and oxidative-stress related biomarkers in intermittent training of Taekwondo Athletes

Show simple item record

dc.contributor.advisor Danials, T.D
dc.contributor.advisor Ivanov, S
dc.contributor.advisor Kappo, A.B
dc.contributor.author Mathunjwa, Musa Lewis
dc.date.accessioned 2019-07-19T10:25:03Z
dc.date.available 2019-07-19T10:25:03Z
dc.date.issued 2019
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10530/1773
dc.description A dissertation submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Department of Human Movement Science, Faculty of Science and Agriculture, 2019. en_US
dc.description.abstract This thesis presents four studies. Study one aimed at identifying the anthropometric, physical and physiological characteristics of junior Taekwondo athletes required to achieve an international status in 25 males and 11 females aged 25.5±2.6 years. Body composition [percentage body fat (%BF), sum of skinfolds (SS)], flexibility (sit & reach, hip flexor (HF) and quadriceps flexibility (QF), lower extremity explosive power [vertical jump (Diff VJ)] and vertical jump relative power (R Power), muscle endurance (sit-ups and push-ups), muscular strength (handgrip right and left), hexagonal agility (HEX) and agility T-test, aerobic power (20 m bleep test (20MST) converted to maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max.). Significantly higher %BF and sum of skinfolds were recorded in junior female players. No differences in body mass, stature and body mass index (BMI) were found. Female athletes showed lower (p<0.001) results in push-ups compared to males. Maximal grip strength of both hands was higher (p<0.05) in males. Study two investigated the effects of 4 weeks high-intensity intermittent Taekwondo (TKD) training program on body composition, physical fitness and performance of thirty-four (n=34) active TKD athletes of South African Zulu ancestry aged 20-26 years. The athletes were divided into control group (CG; n=10 male, n=7 female), performed interval TKD and strength training of lower intensity (70-75 % VO2max), experimental group (EG; n=10 male, n=7 female) that performed a high-intensity intermittent TKD and strength training (85-95 % VO2max). Body composition parameters: body mass, % body fat, sum of skinfolds, blood pressure (BP) and resting heart rate (RHR) flexibility, leg power, muscle strength and endurance, agility, VO2max (20m bleep test) were measured. Data were analysed using t-test for independent samples and Z-score individual radar plots statistics for assessment of each athlete. After 4 weeks of training, athletes in the experimental group showed a significant reduction in body weight (p<0.05), BMI (p<0.001), systolic blood pressure (SBP) (p<0.05), resting heartrate (RHR) (p<0.05), SS (p<0.05), and fat % (p<0.001) and significant improvement (p<0.001) in flexibility, muscle strength, power, agility and VO2max. In male controls, fat % was decreased (p<0.05), flexibility and VO2max were increased (p<0.05). In female controls, only flexibility was improved (p<0.05). Study three assessed the hormonal and biochemical responses of young male and female Taekwondo athletes during the 4 week high-intensity Taekwondo training. Twenty-eight (N=28) [16 males and 12 females] South African Taekwondo (TKD) athletes aged 20-26 years, BMI=23.7±2.9 14 were subjected to 4 weeks TKD and strength training divided in two groups: experimental (n=8 male, n=6 female) performing high intensity intermittent (85-90% VO2max) TKD training and a control group (n=8 males, n=6 females), performing interval TKD training of lower intensity (70-75% VO2max). A structured Taekwondo tasks (sTT) test was conducted before and after the training period within the experimental group after 4 weeks of high intensity intermittent Taekwondo (HIITKD) training period, the post-sTT test total testosterone level was higher (p<0.05) by 21.7% compared to the pre-sTT test value. No differences between groups were found` in free testosterone, testosterone-binding globulin and cortisol. Post-sTT test cortisol/total testosterone (C/tT) ratio decreased by 13.3% in the experimental group and increased by 18.5% in controls (p<0.05) after the training period. Study four assessed the haematological parameters in twenty-eight (N=28) [16 males and 12 females] South African Taekwondo (TKD) athletes aged 20-26years, BMI=23.7±2.9 14 subjected to 4 weeks of TKD training who were divided into two groups: experimental (n=8 male, n=6 female) performing high intensity intermittent (85-90% VO2max) TKD training and a control group (n=8 males, n=6 females) performing interval TKD training of lower intensity (70-75% VO2max). A structured Taekwondo tasks (sTT) test was conducted before and after the training period. Within the experimental group, after 4 weeks of high intensity intermittent Taekwondo (HIITKD) training period, the post-sTT test total testosterone level was higher (p<0.05) by 21.7% compared to the pre-sTT test value. No differences between groups were found in Haematocrit mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemaglobin (MCH), mean corpuscuclar haemaglobin concentration (MCHC), red distribution width (RDW), Platelets, Eosinophil and Basophil levels between experimental and control groups in the male and female athletes after the training period. RBC (L), Hb, Haematocrit, MCV, MCH, MCHC, RDW, and Lymphocyte levels increased significantly in experimental groups in both female and male TKD athletes. Discussion Intermittent physical events may produce great strength and muscle power demands on both upper and lower body with high anaerobic energy demand. Conclusion. The findings of this study which were obtained from Taekwondo athletes of Zulu ancestry support the effectiveness of 4 weeks high intensity intermittent training in improving body composition, cardiorespiratory response, blood hormone and physical performance that could contribute to improve health and enhanced combat skills of Taekwondo athletes. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher University of Zululand
dc.subject Hormonal and oxidative-stress en_US
dc.subject Biomarkers en_US
dc.subject Training of taekwondo en_US
dc.title Physical tests, hormonal and oxidative-stress related biomarkers in intermittent training of Taekwondo Athletes en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US


Files in this item

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record

Search UZSpace


Browse

My Account